June 26, 2017

Sicurezza, Crittografia e Trust Service Management dei sistemi Embedded

Ritengo utile publicare una parte dell’ultimo corso che ho tenuto all’Ecole Centrale De Electronique di Parigi (www.ece.fr)  per gli studenti del quinto anno di Ingegneria dei sistemi elettronici embedded.

Il corso comprende una parte molto più ampia dedicata alla fabbricazione dei wafer di silicio monocristallino su cui sono costruiti attraverso successive mascherature i “mattoni” di base di ogni circuito elettronico integrato, i transistor (tecnologie aihmé oggi sempre più nel dimenticatoio) e che per chi fosse interessato può consultare su questo stesso blog al seguente indirizzo Appunti di fabbricazione dei Wafer di Silicio Mono cristallino .

Questa parte su cui verte il presente “Post” invece si concentra su un’introduzione alla crittografia e alla sicurezza abbastanza generica che serve per poter capire la successiva parte sul Trust Service Management che oggi con la sempre più ampia diffusione degli smartPhones diventa di importanza capitale.

La domanda da chiedersi è : quanto è sicuro effettuare una transazione di pagamento o di identificazioen personale con un’applicazione installata sul mio Smart Phone? E come garantire che le informazioni confidenziali nel mio telefono non possano essere estratte da terze parti non autorizzate? Ma ancora: come assicurarci di garantire l’autenticità del proprio telefono o dell’applicazione che su esso è installata?

Sono domande che richiedono fiumi di pagine al di fuori dello scopo della presente pubblicazione e guardando sul web potrete trovare parecchie risposte dal punto di vista dell’utente finale. Invece in questa sede si vuole dare il punto di vista che per una volta non sia “applicativo” ad alto livello ma hardwaristico di basso livello, ossia dal punto di vista di chi “fabbrica” i chip che devono contenere le informazioni di sicurezza che devono essere protette (in crittografia questa informazione è quasi sempre una chiave di accesso). E quello che il grande pubblico spesso non sa è che per fabbricare un telefono esistono diversi “attori” che si parlano durante il processo di fabbricazione, essendo il grande produttore finale (quello che in alcune slides viene indicato come “OEM”: Original Equipment Manufacturer”) solo la punta dell’iceberg di tutta un’industria che lavora in sottofondo alla realizzazione di cose molto piccole ma che richiedono spesso tanti ingegneri quanti ce ne possono volere per costruire cose molto grandi come un moderno aereo di linea.

Il corso è anche un messaggio per certi addetti ai lavori che pensano che la sicurezza dei sistemi embedded possa farsi esclusivamente attraverso algoritmi di tipo “Software”. Ritengo, e come me molti altri, che la sicurezza sia un concetto di tipo “olistico” ossia omnicomprensivo in cui ogni sistema debba fare la sua parte e sia assolutamente necessario.
Le pubblicazioni sono in inglese (con buona pace dei puristi francesi :-)
Mi scuso di già per gli eventuali errori imputabili solo alla mia responsabilità, non potendo, purtroppo per questioni di tempo, dedicare all’insegnamento la parte del tempo che meriterebbe (così come il tempo per le correzioni).

Questo primo blocco si limita a spiegare i concetti base di sicurezza e crittografia
00_Introduction_to_security_And_Crypto

Questa seconda parte invece spiega i concetti del TSM (se scaricate il file powerpoint assicurate di vederlo in modo “presentazione”. Il terzo file word è praticamente la spiegazioen a parole delle differenti slides
01_TRUST PROVISIONING
01_TRUST PROVISIONING_Slides_explainations

E per evitare di restare sempre sul teorico un esempio di un applicazione commerciale reale e attualmente in uso

http://vimeo.com/77405148

How the U.S. Lost Out on iPhone Work

Original article from Ney York Times,  can be found here:

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/22/business/apple-america-and-a-squeezed-middle-class.html?_r=4&pagewanted=1&hp

How U.S. Lost Out on iPhone Work
When Barack Obama joined Silicon Valley’s top luminaries for dinner in California last February, each guest was asked to come with a question for the president.
But as Steven P. Jobs of Apple spoke, President Obama interrupted with an inquiry of his own: what would it take to make iPhones in the United States?
Not long ago, Apple boasted that its products were made in America. Today, few are. Almost all of the 70 million iPhones, 30 million iPads and 59 million other products Apple sold last year were manufactured overseas.
Why can’t that work come home? Mr. Obama asked.
Mr. Jobs’s reply was unambiguous. “Those jobs aren’t coming back,” he said, according to another dinner guest.
The president’s question touched upon a central conviction at Apple. It isn’t just that workers are cheaper abroad. Rather, Apple’s executives believe the vast scale of overseas factories as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers have so outpaced their American counterparts that “Made in the U.S.A.” is no longer a viable option for most Apple products.
Apple has become one of the best-known, most admired and most imitated companies on earth, in part through an unrelenting mastery of global operations. Last year, it earned over $400,000 in profit per employee, more than Goldman Sachs, Exxon Mobil or Google.
However, what has vexed Mr. Obama as well as economists and policy makers is that Apple — and many of its high-technology peers — are not nearly as avid in creating American jobs as other famous companies were in their heydays.
Apple employs 43,000 people in the United States and 20,000 overseas, a small fraction of the over 400,000 American workers at General Motors in the 1950s, or the hundreds of thousands at General Electric in the 1980s. Many more people work for Apple’s contractors: an additional 700,000 people engineer, build and assemble iPads, iPhones and Apple’s other products. But almost none of them work in the United States. Instead, they work for foreign companies in Asia, Europe and elsewhere, at factories that almost all electronics designers rely upon to build their wares.
“Apple’s an example of why it’s so hard to create middle-class jobs in the U.S. now,” said Jared Bernstein, who until last year was an economic adviser to the White House.
“If it’s the pinnacle of capitalism, we should be worried.”
Apple executives say that going overseas, at this point, is their only option. One former executive described how the company relied upon a Chinese factory to revamp iPhone manufacturing just weeks before the device was due on shelves. Apple had redesigned the iPhone’s screen at the last minute, forcing an assembly line overhaul. New screens began arriving at the plant near midnight.
A foreman immediately roused 8,000 workers inside the company’s dormitories, according to the executive. Each employee was given a biscuit and a cup of tea, guided to a workstation and within half an hour started a 12-hour shift fitting glass screens into beveled frames. Within 96 hours, the plant was producing over 10,000 iPhones a day.
“The speed and flexibility is breathtaking,” the executive said. “There’s no American plant that can match that.”
Similar stories could be told about almost any electronics company — and outsourcing has also become common in hundreds of industries, including accounting, legal services, banking, auto manufacturing and pharmaceuticals.
But while Apple is far from alone, it offers a window into why the success of some prominent companies has not translated into large numbers of domestic jobs. What’s more, the company’s decisions pose broader questions about what corporate America owes Americans as the global and national economies are increasingly intertwined.
“Companies once felt an obligation to support American workers, even when it wasn’t the best financial choice,” said Betsey Stevenson, the chief economist at the Labor Department until last September. “That’s disappeared. Profits and efficiency have trumped generosity.”

Companies and other economists say that notion is naïve. Though Americans are among the most educated workers in the world, the nation has stopped training enough people in the mid-level skills that factories need, executives say.
To thrive, companies argue they need to move work where it can generate enough profits to keep paying for innovation. Doing otherwise risks losing even more American jobs over time, as evidenced by the legions of once-proud domestic manufacturers — including G.M. and others — that have shrunk as nimble competitors have emerged.
Apple was provided with extensive summaries of The New York Times’s reporting for this article, but the company, which has a reputation for secrecy, declined to comment.
This article is based on interviews with more than three dozen current and former Apple employees and contractors — many of whom requested anonymity to protect their jobs — as well as economists, manufacturing experts, international trade specialists, technology analysts, academic researchers, employees at Apple’s suppliers, competitors and corporate partners, and government officials.
Privately, Apple executives say the world is now such a changed place that it is a mistake to measure a company’s contribution simply by tallying its employees — though they note that Apple employs more workers in the United States than ever before.
They say Apple’s success has benefited the economy by empowering entrepreneurs and creating jobs at companies like cellular providers and businesses shipping Apple products. And, ultimately, they say curing unemployment is not their job.
“We sell iPhones in over a hundred countries,” a current Apple executive said. “We don’t have an obligation to solve America’s problems. Our only obligation is making the best product possible.”

‘I Want a Glass Screen’
In 2007, a little over a month before the iPhone was scheduled to appear in stores, Mr. Jobs beckoned a handful of lieutenants into an office. For weeks, he had been carrying a prototype of the device in his pocket.
Mr. Jobs angrily held up his iPhone, angling it so everyone could see the dozens of tiny scratches marring its plastic screen, according to someone who attended the meeting. He then pulled his keys from his jeans.
People will carry this phone in their pocket, he said. People also carry their keys in their pocket. “I won’t sell a product that gets scratched,” he said tensely. The only solution was using unscratchable glass instead. “I want a glass screen, and I want it perfect in six weeks.”
After one executive left that meeting, he booked a flight to Shenzhen, China. If Mr. Jobs wanted perfect, there was nowhere else to go.
For over two years, the company had been working on a project — code-named Purple 2 — that presented the same questions at every turn: how do you completely reimagine the cellphone? And how do you design it at the highest quality — with an unscratchable screen, for instance — while also ensuring that millions can be manufactured quickly and inexpensively enough to earn a significant profit?
The answers, almost every time, were found outside the United States. Though components differ between versions, all iPhones contain hundreds of parts, an estimated 90 percent of which are manufactured abroad. Advanced semiconductors have come from Germany and Taiwan, memory from Korea and Japan, display panels and circuitry from Korea and Taiwan, chipsets from Europe and rare metals from Africa and Asia. And all of it is put together in China.
In its early days, Apple usually didn’t look beyond its own backyard for manufacturing solutions. A few years after Apple began building the Macintosh in 1983, for instance, Mr. Jobs bragged that it was “a machine that is made in America.” In 1990, while Mr. Jobs was running NeXT, which was eventually bought by Apple, the executive told a reporter that “I’m as proud of the factory as I am of the computer.” As late as 2002, top Apple executives occasionally drove two hours northeast of their headquarters to visit the company’s iMac plant in Elk Grove, Calif.
But by 2004, Apple had largely turned to foreign manufacturing. Guiding that decision was Apple’s operations expert, Timothy D. Cook, who replaced Mr. Jobs as chief executive last August, six weeks before Mr. Jobs’s death. Most other American electronics companies had already gone abroad, and Apple, which at the time was struggling, felt it had to grasp every advantage.
In part, Asia was attractive because the semiskilled workers there were cheaper. But that wasn’t driving Apple. For technology companies, the cost of labor is minimal compared with the expense of buying parts and managing supply chains that bring together components and services from hundreds of companies.

For Mr. Cook, the focus on Asia “came down to two things,” said one former high-ranking Apple executive. Factories in Asia “can scale up and down faster” and “Asian supply chains have surpassed what’s in the U.S.” The result is that “we can’t compete at this point,” the executive said.
The impact of such advantages became obvious as soon as Mr. Jobs demanded glass screens in 2007.
For years, cellphone makers had avoided using glass because it required precision in cutting and grinding that was extremely difficult to achieve. Apple had already selected an American company, Corning Inc., to manufacture large panes of strengthened glass. But figuring out how to cut those panes into millions of iPhone screens required finding an empty cutting plant, hundreds of pieces of glass to use in experiments and an army of midlevel engineers. It would cost a fortune simply to prepare.
Then a bid for the work arrived from a Chinese factory.
When an Apple team visited, the Chinese plant’s owners were already constructing a new wing. “This is in case you give us the contract,” the manager said, according to a former Apple executive. The Chinese government had agreed to underwrite costs for numerous industries, and those subsidies had trickled down to the glass-cutting factory. It had a warehouse filled with glass samples available to Apple, free of charge. The owners made engineers available at almost no cost. They had built on-site dormitories so employees would be available 24 hours a day.
The Chinese plant got the job.
“The entire supply chain is in China now,” said another former high-ranking Apple executive. “You need a thousand rubber gaskets? That’s the factory next door. You need a million screws? That factory is a block away. You need that screw made a little bit different? It will take three hours.”

In Foxconn City
An eight-hour drive from that glass factory is a complex, known informally as Foxconn City, where the iPhone is assembled. To Apple executives, Foxconn City was further evidence that China could deliver workers — and diligence — that outpaced their American counterparts.
That’s because nothing like Foxconn City exists in the United States.
The facility has 230,000 employees, many working six days a week, often spending up to 12 hours a day at the plant. Over a quarter of Foxconn’s work force lives in company barracks and many workers earn less than $17 a day. When one Apple executive arrived during a shift change, his car was stuck in a river of employees streaming past. “The scale is unimaginable,” he said.
Foxconn employs nearly 300 guards to direct foot traffic so workers are not crushed in doorway bottlenecks. The facility’s central kitchen cooks an average of three tons of pork and 13 tons of rice a day. While factories are spotless, the air inside nearby teahouses is hazy with the smoke and stench of cigarettes.
Foxconn Technology has dozens of facilities in Asia and Eastern Europe, and in Mexico and Brazil, and it assembles an estimated 40 percent of the world’s consumer electronics for customers like Amazon, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Motorola, Nintendo, Nokia, Samsung and Sony.
“They could hire 3,000 people overnight,” said Jennifer Rigoni, who was Apple’s worldwide supply demand manager until 2010, but declined to discuss specifics of her work. “What U.S. plant can find 3,000 people overnight and convince them to live in dorms?”
In mid-2007, after a month of experimentation, Apple’s engineers finally perfected a method for cutting strengthened glass so it could be used in the iPhone’s screen. The first truckloads of cut glass arrived at Foxconn City in the dead of night, according to the former Apple executive. That’s when managers woke thousands of workers, who crawled into their uniforms — white and black shirts for men, red for women — and quickly lined up to assemble, by hand, the phones. Within three months, Apple had sold one million iPhones. Since then, Foxconn has assembled over 200 million more.
Foxconn, in statements, declined to speak about specific clients.

“Any worker recruited by our firm is covered by a clear contract outlining terms and conditions and by Chinese government law that protects their rights,” the company wrote. Foxconn “takes our responsibility to our employees very seriously and we work hard to give our more than one million employees a safe and positive environment.”
The company disputed some details of the former Apple executive’s account, and wrote that a midnight shift, such as the one described, was impossible “because we have strict regulations regarding the working hours of our employees based on their designated shifts, and every employee has computerized timecards that would bar them from working at any facility at a time outside of their approved shift.” The company said that all shifts began at either 7 a.m. or 7 p.m., and that employees receive at least 12 hours’ notice of any schedule changes.
Foxconn employees, in interviews, have challenged those assertions.
Another critical advantage for Apple was that China provided engineers at a scale the United States could not match. Apple’s executives had estimated that about 8,700 industrial engineers were needed to oversee and guide the 200,000 assembly-line workers eventually involved in manufacturing iPhones. The company’s analysts had forecast it would take as long as nine months to find that many qualified engineers in the United States.
In China, it took 15 days.
Companies like Apple “say the challenge in setting up U.S. plants is finding a technical work force,” said Martin Schmidt, associate provost at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In particular, companies say they need engineers with more than high school, but not necessarily a bachelor’s degree. Americans at that skill level are hard to find, executives contend. “They’re good jobs, but the country doesn’t have enough to feed the demand,” Mr. Schmidt said.
Some aspects of the iPhone are uniquely American. The device’s software, for instance, and its innovative marketing campaigns were largely created in the United States. Apple recently built a $500 million data center in North Carolina. Crucial semiconductors inside the iPhone 4 and 4S are manufactured in an Austin, Tex., factory by Samsung, of South Korea.
But even those facilities are not enormous sources of jobs. Apple’s North Carolina center, for instance, has only 100 full-time employees. The Samsung plant has an estimated 2,400 workers.
“If you scale up from selling one million phones to 30 million phones, you don’t really need more programmers,” said Jean-Louis Gassée, who oversaw product development and marketing for Apple until he left in 1990. “All these new companies — Facebook, Google, Twitter — benefit from this. They grow, but they don’t really need to hire much.”
It is hard to estimate how much more it would cost to build iPhones in the United States. However, various academics and manufacturing analysts estimate that because labor is such a small part of technology manufacturing, paying American wages would add up to $65 to each iPhone’s expense. Since Apple’s profits are often hundreds of dollars per phone, building domestically, in theory, would still give the company a healthy reward.
But such calculations are, in many respects, meaningless because building the iPhone in the United States would demand much more than hiring Americans — it would require transforming the national and global economies. Apple executives believe there simply aren’t enough American workers with the skills the company needs or factories with sufficient speed and flexibility. Other companies that work with Apple, like Corning, also say they must go abroad.
Manufacturing glass for the iPhone revived a Corning factory in Kentucky, and today, much of the glass in iPhones is still made there. After the iPhone became a success, Corning received a flood of orders from other companies hoping to imitate Apple’s designs. Its strengthened glass sales have grown to more than $700 million a year, and it has hired or continued employing about 1,000 Americans to support the emerging market.
But as that market has expanded, the bulk of Corning’s strengthened glass manufacturing has occurred at plants in Japan and Taiwan.

“Our customers are in Taiwan, Korea, Japan and China,” said James B. Flaws, Corning’s vice chairman and chief financial officer. “We could make the glass here, and then ship it by boat, but that takes 35 days. Or, we could ship it by air, but that’s 10 times as expensive. So we build our glass factories next door to assembly factories, and those are overseas.”
Corning was founded in America 161 years ago and its headquarters are still in upstate New York. Theoretically, the company could manufacture all its glass domestically. But it would “require a total overhaul in how the industry is structured,” Mr. Flaws said. “The consumer electronics business has become an Asian business. As an American, I worry about that, but there’s nothing I can do to stop it. Asia has become what the U.S. was for the last 40 years.”

Middle-Class Jobs Fade
The first time Eric Saragoza stepped into Apple’s manufacturing plant in Elk Grove, Calif., he felt as if he were entering an engineering wonderland.
It was 1995, and the facility near Sacramento employed more than 1,500 workers. It was a kaleidoscope of robotic arms, conveyor belts ferrying circuit boards and, eventually, candy-colored iMacs in various stages of assembly. Mr. Saragoza, an engineer, quickly moved up the plant’s ranks and joined an elite diagnostic team. His salary climbed to $50,000. He and his wife had three children. They bought a home with a pool.
“It felt like, finally, school was paying off,” he said. “I knew the world needed people who can build things.”
At the same time, however, the electronics industry was changing, and Apple — with products that were declining in popularity — was struggling to remake itself. One focus was improving manufacturing. A few years after Mr. Saragoza started his job, his bosses explained how the California plant stacked up against overseas factories: the cost, excluding the materials, of building a $1,500 computer in Elk Grove was $22 a machine. In Singapore, it was $6. In Taiwan, $4.85. Wages weren’t the major reason for the disparities. Rather it was costs like inventory and how long it took workers to finish a task.
“We were told we would have to do 12-hour days, and come in on Saturdays,” Mr. Saragoza said. “I had a family. I wanted to see my kids play soccer.”
Modernization has always caused some kinds of jobs to change or disappear. As the American economy transitioned from agriculture to manufacturing and then to other industries, farmers became steelworkers, and then salesmen and middle managers. These shifts have carried many economic benefits, and in general, with each progression, even unskilled workers received better wages and greater chances at upward mobility.
But in the last two decades, something more fundamental has changed, economists say. Midwage jobs started disappearing. Particularly among Americans without college degrees, today’s new jobs are disproportionately in service occupations — at restaurants or call centers, or as hospital attendants or temporary workers — that offer fewer opportunities for reaching the middle class.
Even Mr. Saragoza, with his college degree, was vulnerable to these trends. First, some of Elk Grove’s routine tasks were sent overseas. Mr. Saragoza didn’t mind. Then the robotics that made Apple a futuristic playground allowed executives to replace workers with machines. Some diagnostic engineering went to Singapore. Middle managers who oversaw the plant’s inventory were laid off because, suddenly, a few people with Internet connections were all that were needed.
Mr. Saragoza was too expensive for an unskilled position. He was also insufficiently credentialed for upper management. He was called into a small office in 2002 after a night shift, laid off and then escorted from the plant. He taught high school for a while, and then tried a return to technology. But Apple, which had helped anoint the region as “Silicon Valley North,” had by then converted much of the Elk Grove plant into an AppleCare call center, where new employees often earn $12 an hour.

There were employment prospects in Silicon Valley, but none of them panned out. “What they really want are 30-year-olds without children,” said Mr. Saragoza, who today is 48, and whose family now includes five of his own.
After a few months of looking for work, he started feeling desperate. Even teaching jobs had dried up. So he took a position with an electronics temp agency that had been hired by Apple to check returned iPhones and iPads before they were sent back to customers. Every day, Mr. Saragoza would drive to the building where he had once worked as an engineer, and for $10 an hour with no benefits, wipe thousands of glass screens and test audio ports by plugging in headphones.

Paydays for Apple
As Apple’s overseas operations and sales have expanded, its top employees have thrived. Last fiscal year, Apple’s revenue topped $108 billion, a sum larger than the combined state budgets of Michigan, New Jersey and Massachusetts. Since 2005, when the company’s stock split, share prices have risen from about $45 to more than $427.
Some of that wealth has gone to shareholders. Apple is among the most widely held stocks, and the rising share price has benefited millions of individual investors, 401(k)’s and pension plans. The bounty has also enriched Apple workers. Last fiscal year, in addition to their salaries, Apple’s employees and directors received stock worth $2 billion and exercised or vested stock and options worth an added $1.4 billion.
The biggest rewards, however, have often gone to Apple’s top employees. Mr. Cook, Apple’s chief, last year received stock grants — which vest over a 10-year period — that, at today’s share price, would be worth $427 million, and his salary was raised to $1.4 million. In 2010, Mr. Cook’s compensation package was valued at $59 million, according to Apple’s security filings.
A person close to Apple argued that the compensation received by Apple’s employees was fair, in part because the company had brought so much value to the nation and world. As the company has grown, it has expanded its domestic work force, including manufacturing jobs. Last year, Apple’s American work force grew by 8,000 people.
While other companies have sent call centers abroad, Apple has kept its centers in the United States. One source estimated that sales of Apple’s products have caused other companies to hire tens of thousands of Americans. FedEx and United Parcel Service, for instance, both say they have created American jobs because of the volume of Apple’s shipments, though neither would provide specific figures without permission from Apple, which the company declined to provide.
“We shouldn’t be criticized for using Chinese workers,” a current Apple executive said. “The U.S. has stopped producing people with the skills we need.”
What’s more, Apple sources say the company has created plenty of good American jobs inside its retail stores and among entrepreneurs selling iPhone and iPad applications.
After two months of testing iPads, Mr. Saragoza quit. The pay was so low that he was better off, he figured, spending those hours applying for other jobs. On a recent October evening, while Mr. Saragoza sat at his MacBook and submitted another round of résumés online, halfway around the world a woman arrived at her office. The worker, Lina Lin, is a project manager in Shenzhen, China, at PCH International, which contracts with Apple and other electronics companies to coordinate production of accessories, like the cases that protect the iPad’s glass screens. She is not an Apple employee. But Mrs. Lin is integral to Apple’s ability to deliver its products.
Mrs. Lin earns a bit less than what Mr. Saragoza was paid by Apple. She speaks fluent English, learned from watching television and in a Chinese university. She and her husband put a quarter of their salaries in the bank every month. They live in a 1,080-square-foot apartment, which they share with their in-laws and son.
“There are lots of jobs,” Mrs. Lin said. “Especially in Shenzhen.”

Innovation’s Losers
Toward the end of Mr. Obama’s dinner last year with Mr. Jobs and other Silicon Valley executives, as everyone stood to leave, a crowd of photo seekers formed around the president. A slightly smaller scrum gathered around Mr. Jobs. Rumors had spread that his illness had worsened, and some hoped for a photograph with him, perhaps for the last time.
Eventually, the orbits of the men overlapped. “I’m not worried about the country’s long-term future,” Mr. Jobs told Mr. Obama, according to one observer. “This country is insanely great. What I’m worried about is that we don’t talk enough about solutions.”
At dinner, for instance, the executives had suggested that the government should reform visa programs to help companies hire foreign engineers. Some had urged the president to give companies a “tax holiday” so they could bring back overseas profits which, they argued, would be used to create work. Mr. Jobs even suggested it might be possible, someday, to locate some of Apple’s skilled manufacturing in the United States if the government helped train more American engineers.
Economists debate the usefulness of those and other efforts, and note that a struggling economy is sometimes transformed by unexpected developments. The last time analysts wrung their hands about prolonged American unemployment, for instance, in the early 1980s, the Internet hardly existed. Few at the time would have guessed that a degree in graphic design was rapidly becoming a smart bet, while studying telephone repair a dead end.
What remains unknown, however, is whether the United States will be able to leverage tomorrow’s innovations into millions of jobs.
In the last decade, technological leaps in solar and wind energy, semiconductor fabrication and display technologies have created thousands of jobs. But while many of those industries started in America, much of the employment has occurred abroad. Companies have closed major facilities in the United States to reopen in China. By way of explanation, executives say they are competing with Apple for shareholders. If they cannot rival Apple’s growth and profit margins, they won’t survive.
“New middle-class jobs will eventually emerge,” said Lawrence Katz, a Harvard economist. “But will someone in his 40s have the skills for them? Or will he be bypassed for a new graduate and never find his way back into the middle class?”
The pace of innovation, say executives from a variety of industries, has been quickened by businessmen like Mr. Jobs. G.M. went as long as half a decade between major automobile redesigns. Apple, by comparison, has released five iPhones in four years, doubling the devices’ speed and memory while dropping the price that some consumers pay.
Before Mr. Obama and Mr. Jobs said goodbye, the Apple executive pulled an iPhone from his pocket to show off a new application — a driving game — with incredibly detailed graphics. The device reflected the soft glow of the room’s lights. The other executives, whose combined worth exceeded $69 billion, jostled for position to glance over his shoulder. The game, everyone agreed, was wonderful.
There wasn’t even a tiny scratch on the screen.

David Barboza, Peter Lattman and Catherine Rampell contributed reporting.

Vademecum per utenti Apple disperati

Visto che mi ci sono scassato le ” corna” per una settimana vi elenco qui di sotto alcuni trucchi e alcune raccomandazioni per i nuovi arrivati nel mondo della mela (stregata!).

L’utilizzatore medio di Windows/Linux si crede molto furbo e “scafato” perché riesce a personalizzarsi il suo sistema secondo le sue voglie.

Bene sui sistemi Apple dimenticatevi ste voglie. Siete in una dittatura, lo volete il giocattolo? Si? Allora dovete fare come dicono loro, punto.

Eccovi un breve vademecum sotto forma di Questioni/Risposte

Q1) Ho comprato il mio IPAD (o il mio Iphone) l’ho usato per un po’ di tempo e ho scaricato (tramite IPAD e IPHONE diverse applicazioni). Oggi l’ho connesso a  Itunes e lui simpaticamente mi dice che c’e’ un nuovo aggiornamento del software. Però se cerco di farlo Itunes mi dice che tutte le applicazioni verranno cancellate dal nuovo aggiornamento ed io non ho mai sincronizzato l’IPAD o l’IPHONE!

R1)

1)      prima di tutto aprite Itunes e verificate di avere l’ultima versione (in alto sulla barra cliccate su ? e poi verifica aggiornamento). In caso negativo allora aggiornate Itunes (meglio far questo senza connettere nessun device Apple). Poi connettete l’IPAD/Iphone  e dovete trasferire le applicazioni comprate dal vostro IPAD/Iphone su Itunes  del vostro PC(gratis o a pagamento non fa differenza per lui sono comprate). Per fare questo Aprite Itunes, connettete l IPAD/Iphone e sulla sinistra vedrete la figura del device. Cliccate col pulsante destro sul device e scegliete dal menù a tendina “TRASFERISCI ACQUISTI”. Vi apparirà un messaggio chiedendovi se volete AUTORIZZARE il PC/User corrente. Dite SI. Se come me avete due account itunes (uno per l’Apple Store Italiano e uno per l’Apple store Francese) dovete connettervi due volte (con itunes), nello Store corrispondente al vostro account e fare questo processo due volte. Adesso le vostre applicazioni sono state salvate dentro la directory MyDocuments/MyMusic/Itunes/ItunesMusic/MobileApplications (potete copiarle MA NON VI VENISSE IN TESTA DI TOGLIERLE DA LI a meno di non eseguire il passo indicato in Q3)

2)      Ora dovete fare il BACKUP del vostro IPHONE e del vostro IPAD. Sempre come nel passo 1 cliccate nella colonna a sinistra di Itunes col vostro device connesso, pulsante destro e scegliete BACKUP. Il Backup (per un Iphone 4 può essere qualche centinaio di mega, per un IPAD e’ poco più di un giga) verrà messo in una cartella di sistema.  Dove? Se avete un Mac qui ~/Library/Application Support/MobileSync/Backup/, Se avete Windows XP C:\Documents and Settings\user\Application Data\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup  qui, e se avete Windows 7 qui  C:\Users\user\AppData\Roaming\Apple Computer\MobileSync\Backup  (la ~ la Home, User e’ il vostro accountname (tipo Administrator) e se C non e’ il vostro driver principale lo sostituite. (cito la fonte di queste informazioni: http://osxdaily.com/2009/09/11/iphone-backup-location/ ) NON VI VENISSE IN MENTE DI TOGLIERE il backup da quella directory: lasciatelo li  per ora, se volete lo cancellerete in seguito.

3)      A questo punto avete trasferito le applicazioni e la configurazione del vostro sistema (incluse le mail e le foto che avete preso con il vostro Iphone/Ipad): NON avete assolutamente trasferito i file musicali, le foto, gli e-book e i video! Per trasferirli dovete utilizzare il PC (l’unico, la sorgente di MATRIX!) quello che per primo avete utilizzato per caricare sul vostro IPAD i video o la musica con la sincronizzazione (si veda la domanda Q3). In alternativa potete utilizzare un programma che si chiama IPAD TRANSFER ma che è a pagamento che vi permette di copiare foto, musica, video e libri da e su Ipad/Iphone. Ma dovete farlo a mano ed e’ una rottura. Ripeto: FOTO, E-BOOK, MUSICA e VIDEO NONV ENGONO TRASFERITI CON IL BACKUP E NEANCHE CON IL PASSO 1 (TRASFERISCI ACQUISTI)

4)      Sincronizzate in ogni caso le APPLETS (andando sul vostro dispositivo in Itunes, cartella Applet: se le avrete trasferite come si deve staranno tutte li)

5)      Se ve la sentite potete procedere ora all’aggiornamento del sistema operativo con Itunes. Io ci ho messo 20 minuti con l’IPAD. Pregate che non salti la luce. Lasciate fare, alla fine dovrebbe reinstallare  il backup. Se non lo facesse, eseguite di nuovo  il passo 2 e invece di cliccare su BACKUP sceglierete RESTORE. Se anche le vostre applicazioni non sono state reinstallate allora fate una bella sincronizzazione (ora non c’e’ rischio perché le avete trasferite).

In generale dovete tener presente che Apple ha messo in piedi tutta questa blindatura per impedirvi di usare il vostro Iphone/IPAD come una normale chiavetta USB. Questo per tutelare i diritti di autore. Quindi stampatevi bene in testa che è sempre il PC che vince, e mai il vostro Iphone/IPAD (è sempre un PUSH dal PC).

Q2) Ho esaurito il numero di PC autorizzati da Apple Store! Come faccio?

R2) Come anticipato nel passo precedente, quando effettuate il trasferimento delle applicazioni da APPLESTORE a ITUNES il sistema tiene traccia del vostro PC. Se lo fate su cinque PC differenti (o se create cinque account Itunes sullo stesso PC) avete sparato tutte le cartucce. Per poter trasferire le applicazioni da Apple Store a un ennesimo PC (perché siete ricchi e ne avete sei, perché siete sbadati e ne avete persi cinque, perche’ non me ne frega niente io voglio trasferirle dove me pare!) dovete rimuovere dalla lista un PC. Questo articolo vi spiega come fare:  http://gigaom.com/apple/itunes-101-multiple-devices-one-itunes-account/ In pratica andate su Itunes (non c’e’ bisogno che L’IPAD o L’Iphone siano connessi) , dal menù in alto scegliete STORE e poi RIMUOVI AUTORIZZAZIONE. Se vi rubano il PC vi siete bruciati per sempre un account (e ovviamente correte a cambiare la vostra password su Itunes perché se malauguratamente avrete lasciato la vostra carta di credito preregistrata quello che vi ha fregato il PC potrà scaricarsi quello che vuole dall’Apple Store (se riesce a scassare la password di Windows il ché e’ facile).

Su un forum ho letto che le applicazioni comprate sull Apple Store si possono ricaricare dal vostro Ipad direttamente connettendovi con il vostro User name ad Apple Store, ricercando l’ applicazione. Il sistema si ricorda di voi e non vi rifa’ pagare. L’Inconveniente e’ che

a)      dovete ricordarvi tutte le applicazioni (dopo sei mesi di utilizzo di un IPAD ne avrete come minimo una sessantina)

b)      Tutti i dati associati alle applicazioni andranno perse (ad esempio PAGES che e’ tipo WORD, tiene i file .DOC creati con Ipad in una zona di memoria condivisa dall’applicazione. Se riscaricate l applicazione da Applestore i doc sono persi se non li sincronizzate…)

 

Q3) Voglio esportare tutti i file multimediali, audio e video inclusi, in una specifica directory da me scelta e non voglio usare quella predefinita di Itunes.

R3) In questo caso c’e’ una procedura che riporto qui http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1364?viewlocale=it_IT

Da notare che su Windows 7 la directory Itunes/Media si chiama Itunes/iTunes Music.

Con questo metodo dovreste riuscire a esportare tutti i dati, e con i procedimenti precedenti ad evitare di perdere le applicazioni

 

Q4) Non riesco ad importare un file musicale o un file PDF con itunes. PEr farlo trascino il file in questione sull icona dell’ IPAD o dell’Iphone quando sono connessi ad Itunes.

R4) Credo che la nuova versione di Itunes impedisca in blocco questa funzionalita’. Nelle versioni precedenti mi pare si potesse fare. Purtroppo e’ una carognata. In questo caso dovete trascinare il file NON sull’icona dell’IPAD ma dentro la cartella corrispondente sopra l’icona dell’Ipad (esempio Libreria -> Musica). Poi dovete sincronizzare e TUTTO il contenuto dell IPAD per quella cartella corrispondente (esempio Musica) verra’ sovrascritto. Il che vuol dire che se lo fate dal vostro Laptop dell’ufficio perderete probabilmente i file caricati dal Laptop di casa.

In generale per fare l’update di file conviene solo e sempre usare un solo Laptop. Probabilmente per la condivisione di file converra’ usare Icloud.

Inside Apple

Let’s have a look …
Inside_Apple

;-)

Interferenza bio-elettromagnetica1: il WiFi

Vi invito a leggervi questa FAQ e a farmi sapere che ne pensate.

http://www.iss.it/elet/doma/cont.php?id=114&lang=1&tipo=6

Campi elettromagnetici e salute pubblica, stazioni radio base e tecnologie senza fili (wireless)

 

Apple and the Berlin Wall in the Globalization’s Age

Interesting thread between an user of Ipad/itune and Apple support with respect a complaint on their system. Look at Apples’ answer….

 

———- Forwarded message ———-
From: <macappstore_english_eu_support@apple.com>
Date: 2011/6/17
Subject: Re: MacAppStoreAccountandBilling; Follow-up: 155975742
To: matteos72@gmail.com

Dear Matteo,

Courtney, here from the iTunes Store.

Thank you for your interest in the iTunes Store. To shop at the iTunes Store for your country, you must have both a residential address and a billing address in that country. I do understand that you are living and working in France but you would like to purchase from the Italian iTunes Store. I regret, and apologize, that you cannot do so. Unfortunately, if you want to purchases from the Italian iTunes Store, you must have a valid billing address and credit card from Italy.

I also do understand that many other companies allow you to purchase from their European stores, no matter what county you are from or living in, however it is Apples policy that you must have the valid address and credit card in such country you wish to purchase from. I do understand how frustrating this must be, especially since you are located in Europe. And I do apologize for this inconvenience.

I have included the feedback page for Apple, so you can voice you concerns. We do take your concerns very seriously, Matteo!

http://www.apple.com/feedback/itunes.html

I have also provided instructions to accessing the French iTunes Store; I know it’s not the one you would like to purchase from but there is no way around it unless you have a valid billing address and credit card in Italy. And I do apologize.

1) Open iTunes.

2) Go to the iTunes Store.

3) Scroll down to the bottom of the iTunes Store homepage and click the current country’s flag icon in the lower-right corner. A new page will load that will have a graphical list of every country the iTunes Store and App Store are available in.

Therefore, as long as you are living and working in France, with your French bank account you have to purchase only from the French iTunes Store.

I hope this clarifies your concerns, Matteo. Please let me know if you require any further assistance with this issue, as I would be glad to help. I do apologize that you cannot purchase from the Italian iTunes Store. Thanks for your understanding and have a wonderful day!

Sincerely,

Courtney
iTunes Store Customer Support

Please note my hours for this week are:
Tuesday- Saturday 8:00 AM – 4:30 PM (EST)

Thank you for allowing me the opportunity to assist you. You may receive an AppleCare survey email; any feedback you provide would be greatly appreciated.

 

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

hello thanks you for your support but my issue is that I am living in
France (I work in France) so I have a bank account in France but I am
Italian and I like to buy Italian objects (eg books, music and so on).

I do want my AppleStore is in Italian.And I do want to pay with my
AmericanExpress I have issued from y French Bank (IF I WANT because
you cannot oblige me to insert credit card if I want to download
freeware applications no? and In any case I do nto want to leave my
credit card number on your server so I want to be free to remove the
card whenever I want).
I can do this on AMAZON.IT, whay not on AppleStore?

The below “restrictions” you mentioned are complicated to understand
because is as if in US you tell  people living in Alabama that they
can access Apple Store with objects only in Alabama.
In the Internet community this is like to put new Berlin’s wall!!!!

In Europe is becoming more and more normal for people of one
nationality to leave in another Country for professional reason, and
this means they have resident permit in the country where they leave
and bank accoutn too.

In Europe there is Schengen’s Agreement by with  you can buy
goods  in France and transfer in Italy without custom’s control. Is
more or less like in US where you can buy good in Textas even if you
live in New York.
In Internet there is AMAZON that sell goods allowing you to decide
the Country or the language to use (eg I can access AMAZON.ITALY and
pay with my French Credit Card for an Italian movie)
In Apple Store I am obliged to create two or three accounts if I want
to access UK, of FR or IT AppleStore in the local language (and so to
access easier to local goods: books, musics, videos…).
MAybe I missed something in this case thanks to correct me, but  your
system is complicated and not customer’s friendly for people leavign
in one cuntry that comes from another Coutnry (and trust me this is
becoming normal in teh age of globalization)

I cannot have an Italian credit card and a french one because for me
is double cost.

I will hope you change your policy and make more easy for the
community to access Apple Services without these “Countries” barries
(maybe you do not know but the Berlin’s wall fallendown in 1989)

Matteo.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

 

 

Who says that Apple is customer’s friendly?
Maybe not for emigrants….

+++++++++++++++++
Details: Hello I want to change the APPLESTORE Language. I cannot access AppleStore in a la different from the one I used with my resident coutnries, so I cannot access products in the store of a specific Contry. f. if I have French credit card I cannot access book offert in Italian AppleStore. I am obliged to create a second account
TrackID: 15218935

+++++++++++++++++++++

here is the SIMPLE answer from Apple

 


Dear Matteo,

I understand that you have moved to Italy and you are being prompted to edit your credit card . I can certainly appreciate how eager you must be to get this issue resolved and begin making purchaes! My name is Courtney and I would be more than happy to help you out with this today!

I do have to inform you Matteo, that you will need to change you billing address associated with your “accountmatteos72@gmail.com” to be able to purchase from the iTunes Store, and this requires you to either add a credit card or other payment method. I will be happy to provide the information you’ll need.

Before you change the country in your account, please note the following:

1) You will be asked to provide a valid billing address in the new country as well as a payment method, such as a credit card, debit card, or iTunes Store Gift Card that was issued in the new country. ***Without these, you will not be able to change your account’s country.

2) Please be aware that content purchased from the iTunes Store is country-specific. If you wish to upgrade any of your iTunes Store content to iTunes Plus, you’ll need to do so before you change your account’s country. After you change countries in your account, you won’t be able to upgrade the content you purchased while your account was set to the previous country.

3) The content from the App Store is also country-specific. If you wish to upgrade any of your applications, please do so before changing countries. After you change countries, you won’t be able to upgrade the applications you purchased while your account was set to the previous country.

4) If you have any store credit, you will need to use the credit before you can change countries in your account.

5) If you have any items that are not downloaded or rentals that have not expired, you will not be able to change countries in your account until after you download the items or the rentals expire after the 30 days remaining. (MA SIAMO MATTIIIIII???? N.d.M)

The following steps explain how to change the country for your account:

1) First, make sure you’re using the latest version of iTunes, which is now iTunes 10.3. It’s available free of charge:

http://www.itunes.com/download

2) Click the following link to open iTunes and access the Apple Account Information page:

http://phobos.apple.com/accountSummary

3) Enter your iTunes Store account name and password, then click Account Info.

4) On the Apple Account Information page, click Change Country.

5) Enter the updated information and save your changes.

(N.d.M Does not work. YOu need to insert a credit card on Itune to change languafge. The only way to change iw via www.AppleStore  and even ther is not trivial. )

Please reply to this email if you are unable to change the country for your account, and I will assist you further.

I trust this should resolve everything for you, Matteo. It was my pleasure to have helped you out today! Thanks for choosing the iTunes Store and have a great day!

Sincerely,

Courtney
iTunes Store Customer Support

Google Wallet And Nexus-S; NXP

Ci spiace, ma questo articolo è disponibile soltanto in English e Français.